In the book Suicide by Emile Durkheim there are four types :
- Egoistic Suicide: This occurs when an individual is not well integrated into society or lacks social ties and connections. Such individuals feel isolated, detached, and disconnected from others, leading them to feel that their existence is meaningless.
- Altruistic Suicide: This occurs when an individual is overly attached or integrated into a social group or organization, such as military personnel or members of a cult. Such individuals may be willing to sacrifice their own lives for the greater good of the group or to achieve a certain objective.
- Anomic Suicide: This occurs during times of social upheaval or rapid social change, such as economic crisis or war. Such individuals may feel a sense of normlessness, confusion, and uncertainty, leading them to question the value and purpose of their lives.
- Fatalistic Suicide: This occurs when an individual feels trapped and oppressed by social structures, such as slavery or extreme forms of authoritarianism. Such individuals may see death as a means of escape from their oppressive situation.
Emile Durkheim’s book “Suicide” was published in 1897 and is considered a foundational work in the field of sociology. In the book, Durkheim explores the causes and social factors that contribute to suicide, arguing that it is not just an individual act but also a social phenomenon. Durkheim argues that suicide rates are influenced by social factors such as social integration, social regulation, and social change.
He contends that suicide rates are higher in societies that are less integrated and less regulated, such as those undergoing rapid social change, and that suicide rates are lower in societies that are more integrated and regulated. While the book has been influential in the field of sociology, it has also faced criticism.