Navigating Perspectives through Truth


We have all heard the popular saying,” Reality is a matter of perspective “which seems to be the truth in this modern age. Propaganda and clever twists of each story is enough to change narratives to favor an agenda. In this essay I hope to bring the categorical imperative that binds the conscience of man to Truth. 

“Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.” ― Marcus Aurelius 

Henry Kissinger passed away on 29th November 2023 and the legacy left behind by him is laden with controversy. Much like popular leaders he is famous as well as infamous.  Here are some of the key aspects that have contributed to the controversy surrounding Henry Kissinger: 

  • Vietnam War Policies: Kissinger served as National Security Advisor and later as Secretary of State during the Nixon administration, which faced intense criticism for its handling of the Vietnam War. The secret bombing of Cambodia and Laos, as well as the expansion of the conflict into these countries, sparked public outrage and fueled anti -war sentiments. The perceived lack of transparency and the heavy human cost of the war led to widespread condemnation of Kissinger’s role in shaping and executing these policies. 
  • Realpolitik and Détente: Kissinger was a proponent of realpolitik, a political philosophy that prioritizes practical and pragmatic considerations over moral or ideological principles. While this approach contributed to the normalization of relations with China and the détente policy with the Soviet Union, critics argue that it often involved compromising on human rights issues and supporting authoritarian regimes, undermining democratic values for the sake of geopolitical goals. 
  • Chilean Coup and Latin American Policies: One of the most controversial episodes associated with Kissinger’s tenure was the U.S. involvement in the 1973 coup in Chile, which led to the overthrow of President Salvador Allende. Critics claim that Kissinger and the U.S. government supported anti-Allende forces, contributing to a violent regime change. The subsequent military dictatorship, led by General Augusto Pinochet, was accused of widespread human rights abuses, raising ethical concerns about U.S. foreign policy under Kissinger. 
  • Secretive and Unaccountable Image: Kissinger’s reputation for operating in secrecy and his reluctance to disclose information about key foreign policy decisions fueled suspicions and accusations of an undemocratic decision-making process. The perception that he operated in an opaque manner contributed to a lack of trust among the American public and intensified the controversy surrounding his actions. 
  • Nobel Peace Prize Controversy: In 1973, Kissinger was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in negotiating a ceasefire during the Vietnam War. However, the decision was met with criticism and protests, with many arguing that it was inconsistent to award a peace prize to an individual associated with a conflict that had caused immense suffering and loss of life. 
  • Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy: Kissinger’s influence on U.S. foreign policy and his approach to international relations have been both praised and criticized. Some view his pragmatism as a necessary response to the complexities of global politics, while others argue that it sometimes resulted in policies that sacrificed human rights and ethical considerations for geopolitical gains. 
 Why is Truth important?  

Truth is important because meaning would simply be lost without it. In essence, truth is the glue that holds together various aspects of human existence. Whether in the pursuit of knowledge, ethical conduct, social cohesion, or personal growth, the importance of truth cannot be overstated. It serves as a guiding principle for individual and collective well-being, contributing to a more just, informed, and harmonious world. 

 Why is man’s brain hardwired to truth?  

Coming back to the core of this essay, experts say that the idea that a person’s conscience is hardwired to truth is because there is an innate or instinctual connection between human consciousness and a sense of truth or moral principles. While the concept of a hardwired conscience is often discussed in philosophical, psychological, and even evolutionary terms, it’s important to note that different perspectives exist on the origin and nature of this connection. 

Evolutionary Perspective: 

  • Survival Advantage: Some evolutionary psychologists propose that a sense of morality, including a connection to truth, may have conferred a survival advantage to early humans. Cooperative behavior, honesty, and adherence to social norms could enhance group cohesion, cooperation, and overall community well-being. 
  • Social Bonds and Cooperation: The development of a hardwired conscience may be linked to the evolution of social structures. Humans are social beings, and adherence to certain moral principles, including truthfulness, could contribute to the formation and maintenance of social bonds and cooperative relationships. 

Philosophical Perspective: 

  • Innate Moral Sense: Some philosophical traditions argue for the existence of an innate moral sense or intuition. Proponents of moral intuitionism posit that certain moral principles, including a commitment to truth, are self-evident to individuals and do not require external justification. 
  • Moral Realism: The philosophical position of moral realism asserts that moral truths exist independently of human beliefs or perceptions. From this perspective, a hardwired conscience might be seen as our innate capacity to recognize or apprehend objective moral truths. 

Psychological Perspective: 

  • Developmental Psychology: Psychologists such as Lawrence Kohlberg have proposed stages of moral development, suggesting that individuals progress through increasingly complex and abstract understandings of morality. The emergence of a sense of truthfulness could be considered a foundational aspect of moral development. 
  • Cognitive Processes: Cognitive psychologists explore the cognitive processes underlying moral reasoning. The development of a hardwired conscience may involve cognitive mechanisms that enable individuals to evaluate actions, intentions, and consequences in moral terms, including considerations of truth. 

Cultural and Socialization Factors: 

  • Cultural Transmission: While there may be certain universal aspects to moral development, cultural and social factors play a significant role. Individuals learn ethical norms, including the importance of truthfulness, through socialization processes within their cultural context. 
  • Language and Communication: Language is a key tool for transmitting moral values. The development of a hardwired conscience may involve the acquisition of language and the ability to communicate moral concepts, including truth, within a given cultural and linguistic framework. 

Neuroethical Considerations: 

  • Neurobiological Basis: Some neuro-ethicists explore the neural basis of moral decision-making. Research suggests that certain brain regions are involved in processing moral and ethical considerations. Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of moral cognition contributes to discussions about the potential hardwiring of a conscience. 

Rooted in collective conscience, the notion of a hardwired conscience to truth is complex and multifaceted, involving evolutionary, philosophical, psychological, and cultural dimensions. While there may be biological and cognitive aspects that contribute to a sense of morality and truth, the interplay of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors is crucial in shaping individual and collective ethical frameworks. It’s important to approach this topic with an awareness of the ongoing debates and the interdisciplinary nature of research on human morality. 


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